A captivating coastal gem on Morocco’s Atlantic coast, Essaouira is known for its relaxed and laidback vibe. Get lost in a maze of narrow, winding streets in the medina, purchase fresh fish from the lively port, browse the city’s many art galleries and boutiques, and wander along the UNESCO-listed ramparts to enjoy magnificent views of the Atlantic Ocean.

Formerly known as Mogador, the city is known as the “Wind City of Africa” because of the strong coastal wind named Alizee. Spend a day on the beach where you can watch surfers and kitesurfers in action, arrange camel/horse rides, and enjoy a refreshing drink in one of the beach clubs.

So, without further ado, here is our 2-day itinerary that highlights the best things to do in Essaouira and includes tips on where to stay and where to eat.

Day 1

Morning: Medina of Essaouira

We begin our morning walk in the medina, a gorgeous late-18th-century walled old town. With its blend of European and Moroccan architectural influences, Essaouira’s UNESCO-listed medina is flanked by beautiful blue and white buildings. Aimlessly wander through its narrow streets and charming alleyways filled with clothing shops, fruit carts, street food stalls, and merchants selling pottery, argan oil, leather shoes, wooden products, and rugs. Divided by Rue Mohamed El Qorry and Avenue De L’Istiqlal streets, the medina in Essaouira is quite small and really easy to navigate.


Bayt Dakira

Situated inside a beautifully restored synagogue, Bayt Dakira is a lovely museum and cultural centre that focuses on the history of Jewish people in Essaouira. Go through the well-curated exhibitions and see an impressive collection of artwork, documents, and artefacts. There is also a small library where you will find interesting books about Jewish history. The museum hosts events, cultural programs, and workshops throughout the year. We should probably mention that everything here is in French or Arabic. However, there are QR codes and Wi-Fi for information in English. The entrance to this fascinating historical gem is free of charge.

Gallery Kasbah

Your last stop in the morning is the Kasbah Gallery, a fabulous art gallery with a diverse array of artworks. The building itself looks spectacular. Housed inside a carefully restored 18th-century riad, the gallery is spread across 5 floors and has a huge courtyard. You will have an opportunity to see a very eclectic collection ranging from African masks and beautiful old furniture to paintings, sculptures, and ceramics. You can even purchase a few pieces from the gallery’s extensive art collection. Don’t leave the gallery before checking out the lovely rooftop area to enjoy panoramic views of the city.

Day 1 -  Essaouira Morning Tour Map

Afternoon: Galerie d'art Damgaard

For contemporary Moroccan art, there is the Galerie d'art Damgaard. Run by Danish collector, Frederic Damgaard, this unique venue houses an array of works by painters and sculptors from all over the country. There is beautiful furniture and textiles worth checking out, as well as a library with a huge selection of books about Moroccan crafts. Galerie d'art Damgaard is located right across from the city’s clock tower.

Place Moulay Hassan

The main square in Essaouira, Place Moulay Hassan is where all the action is. This bustling square is known for its lively atmosphere, especially in the evenings when talented local musicians take the stage and entertain the crowds with the sounds of traditional Moroccan music. Whether you wish to watch different street performers and musicians or sit down in one of the outdoor cafes for a refreshing drink, there is plenty to look forward to when visiting the vibrant Moulay Hassan Square.

Port de Essaouira and Skala du Port

We end our afternoon walk at the Port de Essaouira and Skala du Port, two of the most popular tourist attractions in Essaouira. Lined by the iconic blue-shaded vessels docked in the small harbour, Port de Essaouira is a fascinating place to just walk around and take photographs. See fisherman bringing in their catch of the day just outside the port’s doorways. Visitors can buy everything from sardines, pilchards, and hake to sole, crab, lobster, octopus, flatfish, and eels here.

Pass through the large gateway to enter Skala du Port, one of the most iconic attractions in the city. Part of the historic fortifications of the city, this iconic piece of architecture was featured in the popular Game of Thrones TV show. See the beautiful bronze cannons and climb the bastion stairs to enjoy panoramic views of the ocean. Keep in mind there’s an admission fee of 50 Dirhams ($5).

Day 1 - afternoon essaouira Tour Map

Day 2

Morning: Synagogue Slat Lkahal Mogador

In the morning, visit this beautifully restored synagogue in Essaouira. Slat Lkahal was built way back in 1850 and has served as a Hebrew learning establishment for deprived children. When the Jewish people of Essaouira emigrated from Morocco to Europe and Israel, Slat Lkahal closed its doors. The good news is that rehabilitation of the city’s Mellah started in 2010 and Slat Lkahal has been restored by the Association Slat Lkahal Mogador. Nowadays, the doors of the synagogue are open to the public once again. Step inside to admire the beauty of this historical place and check out the small photo exhibition about the Mellah and its Jewish community in Essaouira.

Sqala de La Kasbah (City Walls)

An 18th-century seafront fortification that encircles the Old Town, Sqala de La Kasbah is your next stop. Wander along the impressive and well-preserved ramparts and enjoy stunning views of the Atlantic Ocean. The old cannons aiming towards a long-gone fleet of invaders are one of the main attractions here. This area was also used as one of the filming locations for the Game of Thrones show (Season 3).

Le Real Mogador

Situated inside a beautiful riad that was once an Italian consulate, Le Real Mogador is a charming art gallery that houses a tasteful collection of paintings, sculptures, and other art objects. The warm and picturesque place gives upcoming Moroccan artists the opportunity to display their works ranging from impressionist and plastic art to modern abstract art. The owner, Francois, is super friendly and provides tours of the gallery (only by appointment).

Day 2 - Morning essaouira Tour Map

Afternoon: Elizir Art Gallery

Located at the entrance of the city’s medina, Elizir Art Gallery is one of the most unique vintage places in Essaouira. Step inside to find a world of retro furniture and incredible deco items. Wish to purchase retro movie posters, an old-school bright orange telephone, or maybe vintage furniture like an egg-shaped lounge chair? Elizir Art Gallery has it all! There is also an incredible collection of Moroccan royal portraits worth checking out. Spread across 5 floors, this amazing vintage palace is huge. Expect to spend at least 2 hours here.

Wish to purchase retro movie posters, an old-school bright orange telephone? Elizir Art Gallery has it all!Wish to purchase retro movie posters, an old-school bright orange telephone? Elizir Art Gallery has it all!

Dar Souiri

Welcome to Dar Souiri, a beautiful building with a covered courtyard in the heart of the medina. Serving as the hub of cultural life in the city, Dar Souiri hosts everything from festivals, conferences, and concerts to film screenings, workshops, and exhibitions. There is also a library and an art gallery. The building itself looks spectacular with 18th-century Mogador architecture.

Plage d'Essaouira

Your last stop is Essaouira’s main beach. With its golden sands, turquoise waters, and many beachside cafes and restaurants where you can sit down for a drink or two, Plage d'Essaouira offers an ideal setting for outdoor activities and relaxation. There is so much that you do here from quad biking, windsurfing, and kitesurfing to a guided camel or horse rides along the shoreline.

Day 2 - afternoon essaouira Tour Map

Other things to see in Essaouira

  • La Grotte Des Arts: Spread across three small rooms, this art gallery in Essaouira houses a nice collection of handmade art, paintings in oil colours, and other unique artefacts with traditional Berber and Arabic designs. The owner, Younes, is a really talented artist who will tell you everything there is to know about the Berber and Arabic culture.

  • Bab El Marsa: Built between 1769 and 1770 under the order of Sultan Mohammed ben Abdellah, Bab El Marsa is one of the most impressive and symbolic entrances to the harbour area. Engineer Theodor Cornu was in charge of the European-style design. Visitors will notice the phrase “Praise be to God” engraved inside the medallion of the door.

  • Spa Cocooning: If you are in the mood for a traditional Moroccan spa, book an appointment at Spa Cocooning. You can use the hammam and reserve different packages and choose from treatments such as full body massage, wrap, facial treatment, manicure, pedicure, and much more. The spa provides pants, robes, towels, and complimentary mint tea.

  • Azur Art & Spa: You will find this fabulous art spa in the heart of the medina. Azur Art & Spa offers a wide range of treatments including everything from seaweed baths, anti-aging, aromatic massages, reflexology, and exfoliation. However, the main attraction is the amazing black-marble hammam. You can also use the steam room. Fluffy robes, slippers, and black soap are provided for visitors, as well as complimentary herbal tea.

  • MOGASURF: Wish to try surfing or kitesurfing while visiting Essaouira? Run by pro rider Ismail Adarzane, MOGASURF is a school that offers surf and kitesurfing lessons for all levels. The licensed instructors are passionate and incredibly knowledgeable about the sport and the equipment provided is well-maintained, ensuring a safe learning experience. There is a surf shop on-site and a nice café where you can unwind with a drink and enjoy views of the Atlantic.

  • Khadija's Kuzina: Book a cooking class with Khadija, a skilled creative chef who learned the fundamentals of cooking from her mother. You will have an opportunity to see what a real Moroccan home looks like and learn how to prepare local dishes like spicy carrot sandwiches, Moroccan pancakes with amlou, and seafood and fish pastille.

Day trips from Essaouira

  • Diabat: The sleepy village of Diabat is located just 4 kilometres from Essaouira, making it an ideal destination for a quick day trip. Once part of the hippie trail, the small village is best known for its ties with Jimi Hendrix who visited Diabat for a couple of days back in 1969. Today, there is even a Jimi Hendrix café and hotel here. How to spend a day in Diabat? You can visit the ruins of Dar Sultan Palace, join a horse riding tour, and try quad biking.

  • Sidi Kaouki: Hop on a bus from Essaouira to Sidi Kaouki, a small coastal town that has one of the most beautiful beaches on the Moroccan coast. It’s a great place for surfing, kite surfing, and sunbathing. Not a fan of water activities? Try camel riding, quad biking, and horseback riding in Sidi Kaouki. In case you get hungry, Chez Meryem is where you want to go. You have to reserve a day in advance and tell Meryem what you want to eat. Her cooking is delicious! It takes about 30 minutes to get to Sidi Kaouki from Essaouira.

  • Tafedna: A dreamy seaside village located just 45 minutes from Essaouira, Tafedna is known for its picturesque beaches, scenic hiking trails, and laid-back atmosphere. It is a popular destination for surfing and kitesurfing. Rent an umbrella for 20 DH and admire the beauty of the cliffs flanking the long strip of beach. You can also watch the local fishermen dragging in their boats and enjoy grilled fish at Café Restaurant TaYoukhTe ChezAhmed.

  • Val d’Argan Winery: Wine lovers will want to go on a day trip to the fabulous Val d’Argan Winery. Just 30 minutes from Essaouira, the winery offers wine tastings and tours of their amazing property. It is actually the only vineyard in the country dedicated to grape varieties from the Rhône Valley. Val d’Argan Winery grows 13 unique varieties of grapes from the valley and has been in the business since 1994. Wine tasting includes five different wines including two whites, one rose, and two reds. Wish to spend the night here? The property offers bed and breakfast accommodation with beautiful gardens and a swimming pool.

Golf courses near Essaouira

  • Golf de Mogador: Located just 3 kilometres from the centre of Essaouira, Golf de Mogador has been voted one of Africa's best golf courses. This 18-championship golf course is set across 580 hectares of land and is known for excellent fairways, well-maintained greens, and spectacular views of the Atlantic Ocean. Although Golf de Mogador is known for attracting international players for its annual tournament, newbies are also welcome to book time on this beautiful course. There is even the Mogador Golf Academy Essaouira that offers golf lessons. Wish to spend a night or two here? Golf de Mogador is situated within the iconic 5-star Sofitel Essaouira Mogador Golf & Spa resort which boasts 2 outdoor swimming pools, 3 restaurants, and a fully-equipped fitness centre.

Things to do with kids in Essaouira

  • Explore the Medina & the Souks: Compared to the super busy medina in Marrakech, the UNESCO-listed medina in Essaouira is much more chilled and easier to get around. This 18th-century marketplace is an ideal place to visit with the little ones. Mopeds and cars are not allowed to enter the medina, making it a safe area to explore with your kids. Don’t miss the Souks which have a dizzying variety of goods on offer ranging from woven baskets and ceramics to rugs and tourist souvenirs and gifts to bring back home. The sellers here are not pushy and there is no pressure to purchase anything.

  • Hit the Beach: Located just a short walk from the medina, the 2-kilometer-long beach in Essaouira is a fabulous spot for families visiting the city with kids. You will find a promenade lined with all kinds of stores along the entire stretch, as well as a small paid playground with trampolines for children. Although the beach can get windy, the waters here are shallow and provide ideal conditions for activities like paddling, kite flying, and building sand castles. Travelers with kids can also visit the nearby basketball and concrete football area.

  • Watch the colourful fishing boats come in and unload their catch: Take your kids to the legendary fishing port in Essaouira where they can watch the colourful old blue boats and local fishermen bringing in their catch and preparing their nets. The little ones can see lobster, octopus, hake, crab, and eels. If your kids get hungry, you can purchase fish directly from the local fisherman and ask one of the nearby restaurants to have the fish cooked to your liking.

  • Go Horse Riding: Did you know that people from all over Morocco travel to Essaouira to ride horses? They actually visit the small nearby community of Diabat which is known as the mecca for horse riding in this part of Africa. The best place to take your kids to ride horses is Yassine Cavalier Stable, one of the best stables for horse tours and excursions in the region. They offer family-friendly horse tours that typically include riding horses along the beach, crossing the dunes into the forest, and snapping a few photos of you and your kids while enjoying this relaxing activity.

  • Learn to Surf: There is a reason why Essaouira is nicknamed “the Windy City”. Thanks to the strong winds at the beach, water activities like kite surfing and surfing are very popular in Essaouira. Kite surfing may be a bit difficult for the little ones, but they can always try surfing with help from one of the local surf schools. For example, Moga Surf offers lessons for kids who wish to learn how to surf and provides small surf boards and even wetsuits. With the help of these professional guides, your kid will be standing on the surf board before you know it.

  • Visit the Ramparts: Built in the 18th century to protect the port from attack, the fortified walls of the medina are a site to behold. Kids love to climb canons and they will find a bunch of massive Portuguese canons which are still intact. You can also walk along the ramparts late in the afternoon and enjoy the spectacular sunset views of the Atlantic Ocean.

  • Take a Camel Ride: On the far end of the beach in Essaouira, travellers visiting the city with kids can book camel rides. Your kids will love the activity! The good news is that you can choose anything from a 15-minute camel ride to an overnight camel trek. There are many tour guides along this stretch of the beach that offer camel rides for both adults and children. There is also the option of organizing this thrilling activity through your accommodation in Essaouira. We believe that Ranch de Diabat is one of the best places to organize camel rides in Essauoira.

Where to eat in Essaouira

  • The Loft: This intimate and cosy restaurant in the Medina will satisfy both your eyes and taste buds. The quirky retro design and 80s music from the speakers add to the overall charm of the Loft. On the menu, you will find various seafood dishes ranging from crab salad with avocado mouse and king prawns to grilled octopus and prawn and calamari pasta. If you prefer meat dishes, go for the Dukkah marinated chicken.

  • Ocean Vagabond: Looking for a memorable beachfront dining experience while staying in Essaouira? Book a table at Ocean Vagabond, a fabulous beach club and restaurant with surf vibes, an extensive list of drinks (including alcoholic beverages), and delicious food. Pair your glass of wine or Moroccan beer from the tap with something from their food menu which includes everything from burgers, pasta, and club sandwiches to fresh seafood and desserts. Nestled along the coast, the restaurant offers breathtaking views of the ocean. It’s an ideal place to just sit back, relax, and watch kite surfers in action.

  • Umia: Located inside the medina near the city walls, Umia is all about fine dining. This sleek restaurant with olive green walls, giant wooden candle holders, and modern furniture offers Mediterranean-style dishes such as duck and celeriac puree, seared tuna, spinach gnocchi in gorgonzola sauce with walnuts, and clams in white wine with garlic and parsley. Meat lovers will want to try their mouth-watering beef wellington in a golden crust. The restaurant has a liquor license and has an amazing selection of wines from the nearby Vall d’Argan winery.

  • Silvestro: If you get tired of tagine and other Moroccan specialties, we recommend making a reservation at Silvestro. With crispy wood-fired pizza topped with mozzarella, gnocchi with gorgonzola, pasta ossobuco, and linguine alle vongole, it is one of the best Italian restaurants in Essaouira. Silvestro also has a liquor license, so you can enjoy Italian wines, beers, and shots of limoncello. The restaurant itself looks cute with red tablecloths and flower wallpaper.

  • Beach and Friends: Welcome to Beach and Friends, a beachfront restaurant and beach club located a 20-minute walk from the medina. It’s a touristy place with huge comfy sofas, refreshing cocktails, tasty meals, and spectacular ocean views. Watch the camels, horses, and watersports right in front of you on the beach. If you get hungry, go for the classic burger or choose something from their pizza menu. They also prepare delicious salads and pasta dishes. If you have a sweet tooth, try their crème brulée. Beach and Friends serves cocktails, beers, and wine and occasionally hosts live music performances.

  • Taverna Bolognese da Maurizio: You will find this charming Italian restaurant in the heart of the Medina. Run by Maurizio from Bologna, Taverna Bolognese da Maurizio is where you can try a wide range of authentic Italian dishes. Both pizza and pasta Bolognese are delicious. For dessert, we recommend getting their tiramisu. The restaurant is decorated with Italian pictures hanging on the walls, a wine cabinet, and red tablecloths. Taverna Bolognese da Maurizio is one of the few places in Essaouira with a liquor license. Try their house white wine.

  • Cafe L’Esprit: Looking for a place to get your morning coffee fix and enjoy a delicious breakfast? A relatively new café in Essaouira, Cafe L’Esprit is a tiny place with just a few tables. It mostly attracts expats, who come here for the laid-back atmosphere, nous-nous coffee, and the tasty French apple pie. Try their homemade lemonade and avocado toast.

  • Fish Burger: Located right on the main street in the Medina, Fish Burger is a casual eatery that specializes in, as you can probably guess, tasty fish burgers. It is a very popular place, which means that you will probably have to wait in line for a while. What’s good to order here? They offer different fish burgers, as well as some seafood-related tapas. The eggplant burger with cheese and lettuce is a big crowd-pleaser. You can also try their signature deep-fried octopus burger or order the traditional Fish Burger with white fish and tartar sauce.

  • Mandala Society: One of the few health-focused dining establishments in the city, Mandala Society is a modern restaurant that sells everything from veggie burgers and homemade cakes to salads and pastries. Customers are crazy about their vegan Buddha bowl served with pumpkin seeds, hummus, quinoa, and argan oil. The guilt-free vegan brownie cake is definitely worth ordering. In addition to healthy food options, the restaurant offers a nice collection of herbal teas.

Where to stay in Essaouira

  • Sofitel Essaouira Mogador Golf & Spa 5*: This is, without a doubt, one of the most luxurious resorts in Essaouira. Book your stay at Sofitel Essaouira Mogador Golf & Spa, a French-designed 5-star hotel with a fabulous spa centre, 3 swimming pools, an adjacent 18-hole golf course, and 4 elegant restaurants. Located just a 10-minute drive from the Medina, this stylish property boasts large rooms and private villas with sliding glass French windows, plush beds, and spacious bathrooms. For tasty Italian-inspired cuisine, go to the poolside Atlantique restaurant. Wish to party and dance the night away? Dress to the nines and visit the two-floor SoLounge bar/club.

  • Le Medina Essaouira Thalassa Sea & Spa MGallery 5*: A family-friendly 5-star hotel located right on the beach, Le Medina Essaouira Thalassa Sea & Spa MGallery is all about comfort and luxury. Choose from nearly 120 accommodation options ranging from standard rooms and superior rooms with sea views to fully-equipped suites large enough to accommodate families with children. Go for a dip in the indoor/outdoor swimming pool, relax in the Jacuzzi, and work out in the state-of-the-art fitness centre. It will take you about 10 minutes to reach the colourful narrow alleys of Essaouira's medina.

  • Heure Bleue Palais - Relais & Châteaux: Located in the heart of the old town and a few steps from the well-preserved Bab Marrakesh gate, this elegant 5-star hotel is an ideal base to explore the medina and the souks. The boutique hotel is situated inside a beautiful 19th-century building full of colonial charm with huge oak doors, dark wood interiors, velvet furnishings, and a picturesque courtyard with a water fountain and large plants. Heure Bleue Palais is the only building in the old part of the city with a rooftop pool. Don’t miss the on-site Bijou Spa where you can enjoy everything from a traditional hammam to an oil body massage. There are just 33 cosy and bright rooms & suites fitted with fireplaces, Moroccan floor tiles, curved ceilings, and marble bathrooms. Go swimming in the panoramic outdoor pool and enjoy delicious Moroccan cuisine at the on-site Salon Oriental restaurant.

  • Salut Maroc: You can’t beat the location of this historic 18th-century riad transformed into a beautiful boutique hotel. Located just a stone’s throw from the main square in Essaouira, Salut Maroc offers 11 individually designed rooms equipped with hand-painted murals, copper bathtubs, and colourful Moroccan art. The courtyard with Mondrian-inspired tiles looks spectacular and the on-site Terrace restaurant offers traditional Moroccan foods and 180-degree views over the Atlantic Ocean.

  • Riad Kafila Essaouira 4*: If you are searching for a beautiful traditional Moroccan home to stay in, look no further than the gorgeous Riad Kafila Essaouira. Spread across 3 floors, this luxurious riad is all about Moroccan décor with traditional carpets, floor tiles, furniture, and even lighting fixtures. The rooms are tastefully decorated and some come with magnificent ocean views. You will be staying just a few minutes from the medina and the harbour, but away from all the noise. The star of the show is the stunning rooftop terrace where guests can relax, drink mint tea, and enjoy views of the Atlantic.

  • Madada Mogador 4*: Situated inside a charming building that once belonged to a wealthy Jewish merchant, Madada Mogador is one of the most beautiful boutique hotels in the city. There are 7 luxurious bedrooms to choose from, two standard rooms, three rooms with breathtaking ocean views, and 2 suites that come with private terraces and fireplaces. The picturesque beach-facing terrace is where you will have your breakfast which typically includes fruit, yoghurt, pancakes, and eggs. The downstairs La Table by Madada restaurant is known for its refined seafood dishes. In case you wish to book a massage, the hotel has a treatment room with panoramic ocean views on the rooftop terrace.

  • Riad Chbanate: Welcome to Riad Chbanate, an upscale Moroccan residence from the 18th century. The property is located just a stone’s throw from Place Bab Marrakech, which means that you will be spending your vacation minutes from the heart of the medina and the beach. This authentic riad is known for its elegant mixture of modern amenities and traditional Moroccan design. There are 8 tastefully decorated rooms to choose from, each with its own luxurious bathroom, wooden/tile floors, and period furniture. Whether you wish to enjoy the full-service spa, try traditional tagines and vegetable couscous at the on-site restaurant, or unwind with a drink on the rooftop terrace, there is so much to look forward to when staying at Riad Chbanate.

  • Le Jardin des Douars 3*: Located just outside the city gates, this peaceful retreat will leave you breathless. It’s a place for cocktails and sunset views, relaxing spa treatments, and inventive fusion foods. Le Jardin des Douars has 11 different room categories with terracotta tiled floors, plush bed linens, and spacious bathrooms. There are also 2 swimming pools, a beautiful botanical garden, a richly decorated romantic dining room, and a spa centre where you can enjoy different treatments. The property offers a regular shuttle bus to the centre of Essaouira.

  • Chill Art Hostel 2*: Housed inside an 18th-century riad in the medina, Chili Art Hostel is a great place to stay if you are traveling solo and wish to meet new people. It has a backpacker vibe with workshops, live music nights, late-night jam sessions, and communal areas where you can mingle with fellow travellers. The property itself looks beautiful with many vibrant murals and art pieces on the walls. You can choose between shared dorms and private double rooms. There is a nice terrace on the roof from which you can overlook the entire town and see the ocean.

Best time to visit Essaouira

Essaouira is generally a great year-round destination. However, the best time to visit this port city on Morocco’s Atlantic coast depends on what you want from your vacation. For example, the summer months (June to August) are ideal for people who want to hang out on the beach and enjoy activities like kite surfing and surfing. But, keep in mind that Essaouira is known as the “Wind City of Africa” and it gets really windy on the beach. The good news is that the wind drops considerably in September and October, making the so-called shoulder seasons (March to May and September to November), an ideal time to visit the city. These months are pleasant for outdoor activities such as exploring the medina, visiting numerous art galleries, and spending a day on the beach.

Essaouira Festivals

  • Gnawa and World Music Festival: Every summer, an impressive crowd of festival goers flock to this port city in the western Moroccan region of Marrakesh-Safi to attend the annual Gnawa and World Music Festival. The main goal of this popular music festival is to bring together foreign artists and Gnawa musicians. For those who don’t know, Gnawa is traditional music from the Gnawi tribes of West Africa known for its mix of ritual poetry and traditional music and dancing. In recent years, gnawa’s spiritual music has been combined with genres like jazz, blues, reggae, and hip-hop.

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